Research paper on Are you safe online? 


Are you safe online? 


Although the concept of Cybercrime is not new, there is a considerable misunderstanding  among academics, computer security specialists, and consumers about the scope of actual  Cybercrime. We examine the area of computer-based crime in this study, including a  description of the terms “Cybercrime” and “Crimeware.” We then categorize Cybercrime into  type I Cybercrime, which is primarily technological in origin, and Type II Cybercrime, which  has a more robust human component. The role of crimeware in different types of Cybercrime  is then illustrated using two case studies. Some observations on the part of cognition in the  process of Cybercrime are made. Finally, we provide several suggestions for future work in the  area of Cybercrime.  



India cybercrime 

Cyber laws


It is my privilege to express my heartfelt gratitude to all those people who  contributed to this research work either directly or indirectly. 

I would like to express my gratitude to Aaweg Charitable Trust and NGO for  their sincere guidance and inspiration throughout the research work. 

I would also like to thank my friends and family for supporting me and  encouraging me towards writing this research paper. I will always be indebted to  them. 

Last but not the least, I would like to appreciate those who could not be mentioned  here but have played their role from behind the curtain.


People have become more reliant on information and communication technologies in the  modern era of science and technology. More sensitive information is stored and exchanged in  electronic form, necessitating increased attention to the privacy and security of such  information. The fast rise of the Internet and social networks in cyberspace demonstrates that  information and communications technology (ICT) is now part of everyday life. Whether we  are looking for travel information or purchasing tickets, we can do so at any time and from the  comfort of our own home or office. As a result, information, and communication technology  (ICT) has become an essential role of trade and government. 

India aspires to transform its civilization into an information society by implementing the  “Digital India” paradigm. The government, business sector, and citizens rely entirely on the  Internet to conduct sensitive transactions and store critical data in the cloud. As a result, India  is vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Academic publications, generalist computer magazines,  newspaper pieces, and online articles all discuss Cybercrime; it has also been the topic of films,  television shows, and radio broadcasts. Despite the apparent popularity and familiarity with the  phrase, there are widely divergent perspectives on Cybercrime. 

This ambiguity in definitions is significant because it affects every aspect of prevention and  repair. Furthermore, data indicate that the number of people and businesses affected by various  types of perceived cybercrime is increasing, with no indications of slowing down. We look at  many aspects of cybercrime in this study; after looking at some of these definitions, we give a  more encompassing definition before dividing these crimes into two kinds. We also define the  phrase “crimeware,” which is now widely used but has a wide range of meanings, many of  which are context-based, and show how our definition compares and contrasts with other  explanations. 

Even though the term “cybercrime” has become widely used, many individuals would struggle  to define it accurately. Furthermore, there is no single name to describe the tools and software  utilized to commission specific online crimes. In the following two parts, we will attempt to  define Cybercrime and establish a new term, crimeware, which encompasses a wide range of  Trojans, Viruses, Bots, Spyware, and Worms that aid in the facilitation of various Cybercrimes.


Crimeware is a term used to describe the software used in cybercrime. We define crimeware  as software that is utilized (directly or indirectly) in the commission of a criminal act, is not  usually considered a beneficial software program from the standpoint of the computer user and is not unwillingly assisting the crime. For example, a browser with a vulnerability isn’t always  crimeware — it’s simply harmful software. However, the crime committed isn’t defined. This  is significant divergence from other definitions of crimeware, which often confine the term to  software used in financial crimes. This is a false distinction since it defines a program based  on its use rather than its content. 


Cybercrime, like traditional crime, has many elements and occurs in a wide range of events  and environments. Cybercrime definitions have developed throughout time as a result of  personal experience. They differ depending on the observer/and protector’s victim’s  perspectives and are partially a product of the geographic evolution of computer-related crimes.  The Cybercrime Treaty of the Council of Europe, for example, uses the word “Cybercrime” to  refer to offenses ranging from data theft to content and copyright infringement. Zevia-Geese,  on the other hand, thinks the term should be broader, encompassing things like fraud, unlawful  access, child pornography, and cyberstalking. In its definition of cybercrime, the United  Nations Manual on the Prevention and Control of Computer-Related Crime encompasses fraud,  forgery, and illegal access. 

As you can see from these three definitions, cybercrime encompasses a wide range of activities.  Our argument about cybercrime is comparable in many ways to our prior opinion on the utility  of the term “cyberterrorism” . The computer or device could be the perpetrator, facilitator, or  target of the crime; in fact, the offense could occur on the computer alone or in other non – virtual locations.


Following are the few examples of cybercrime:  

Cyber stalking: Stalking encompasses all forms of internet harassment and abuse. It usually  entails a pattern of harassing or threatening activity, such as following someone, showing up  at their home or place of business, making harassing phone calls, leaving written messages or  items, or vandalizing their property. Many stalkers (online or off) are driven by a desire to  control their victims, and cyberstalking shares many of the same traits as offline stalking. One  of the most severe consequences of internet abuse is a victim’s avoidance of friends, family,  and social activities. 

Intellectual Property Crimes: Intellectual property is a collection of rights. Any illegal  conduct that deprives the owner of all or part of his rights constitutes a crime. Software piracy,  copyright infringement, trademark infringement, patent infringement, design, service mark  infringement, and theft of computer source code are all examples of IPR violations. 

Bot Networks: The term “botnet” is derived from the phrase’s “robot” and “network.” Bot  Networks are a type of cybercrime in which hackers use malware software to remotely control  machines. When computers run malicious software, they might become part of a botnet. The  botnet’s creator has remote control over the group. 

Transmitting Virus: Viruses that transmit themselves are programs that attach themselves  to a computer or a file and then spread to other files and computers on a network. They usually  have an impact on a computer’s data by modifying or removing it. Worm attacks have a  significant role in affecting people’s computer systems. 

Hacking: In general, hacking entails looking for and exploiting flaws in a computer system’s  or network’s security to gain unauthorized access. A hacker is a person who engages in hacking.  To hack any computer system, hackers require computer expertise as well as tools or scripts.

Internet Time Thefts: Internet time theft is classified as a type of hacking. It is the  unauthorized use of another person’s paid Internet hours by a third party. Someone who gains  access to another person’s ISP user ID and password, either through hacking or unlawful means,  uses it to access the Internet without the other person’s knowledge. 

Cracking: Knowing that a stranger has broken into a user’s computer system without the  user’s knowledge or consent and tampered with valuable personal data and information is a  terrifying experience. Crackers differ from hackers in that hackers are employed by businesses  to audit network security or test software. In contrast, crackers conduct the same task for  personal gain or to do harm to others. 

Phishing: Phishing refers to the use of electronic communication to obtain information such  as usernames, passwords, credit card numbers, personal information, and so on. Phishing is a  type of fraud that involves sending out fraudulent emails or messages that contain a link to a  virus or malware-infected website. These websites need users to provide personal information. 


The government’s initial step in combating cybercrime was to pass a cyber law. According to  Indian law, cybercrime must be voluntary and purposeful, and it must involve an act or  omission that causes harm to a person or property. Regulations connected to cybercrime,  electronic and digital signatures, intellectual property, data protection, and privacy are all  covered by cyber law. On October 17, 2000, the Indian parliament passed the first  “”Information Technology Act, 2000″” to address cybercrime in the areas of e-commerce, e governance, and e-banking, as well as sanctions and punishments. The Information Technology  (IT) Act of 2000 defines the offenses that are punished. The Information Technology  (Certifying Authorities) Rules, 2000, and the Cyber Regulations Appellate Tribunal  (Procedure) Rules, 2000 went into effect on October 17, 2000. The Information Technology  (Qualification and Experience of Adjudicating Officers and Manner of Holding Enquiry)  Rules, 2003, were passed on March 17, 2003. 

They provide forth rules for secure digital signatures and secure electronic records. On  February 27, 2003, a significant order relating to website blocking was issued. According to  the law, the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-IND) has the authority to ask the  Department of Telecommunications (DOT) to restrict a website. Several cyber offenses are  punishable under the Indian Penal Code (as amended by the IT Act). Forgery of electronic  records, cyber scams, and the destruction of electronic evidence are only a few examples.  According to the Indian Evidence Act, digital proof must be collected and proven in court (as  amended by the IT Act). The provisions of the Bankers’Bankers’ Book Evidence Act (as revised  by the IT Act) apply to bank records. Cybercrimes are investigated and adjudicated in line with  the Code of Criminal Procedure and the IT Act. The IT Act also changed the Reserve Bank of  India Act. 


According to Section 43 of the ‘Information Technology Act, 2000,’ anyone who destroys,  deletes, modifies, disturbs, or causes disruption of any computer intending to cause damage to  the entire data of the computer system without the authorization of the computer’s owner is  penalized. According to Section:43A of the ‘Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008,’  where a body corporate is maintaining and protecting the data of persons as provided by the  central government, if there is any negligent act or failure in protecting the data/information,  the body corporate is liable to pay compensation to the person so affected. Section 66 deals  with computer system hacking and carries a penalty of up to three years in prison, a fine of up  to two years, or both.


Below mentioned security guidelines and good practices may be followed to minimize the  security risk of Cybercrime:  

By updating the computer:  

Update your computer’s operating system and antivirus software regularly to avoid cyber  threats. While keeping a computer up to date will not protect users from all assaults, it will  make it much more difficult for hackers to get access to the system and totally block many  basic and automated attempts. 

By choosing strong passwords:  

Passwords are used to establish an online identity. Choose a password with at least eight  characters and a mix of letters, numbers, and symbols (for example, # $ percent!?). Use non dictionary words instead of easy passwords like your name or city name. Keep passwords in a  secure location and avoid using the same password for many online services. Passwords should  be changed regularly, at least once every 90 days. 

By protecting computer with security software: 

Firewall and antivirus software are famous examples of security software. A firewall regulates  who and what is allowed to communicate with a computer via the Internet. Antivirus software  keeps track of all internet actions and guards against viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and other  harmful software. Antivirus and antispyware software should be set to automatically update  whenever you access the Internet. 

Online offers that look too good to be true usually are:  

It’s possible that the free software or service requested was packed with advertising software  that tracks user behaviour and displays unwanted commercials. When downloading free  software, be cautious.

Review bank and credit card statements regularly: 

If users can detect identity theft and online crimes as soon as their data is stolen or as soon as  they see symptoms, the impact of identity theft and online crimes can be considerably reduced.  Check your bank and credit card statements regularly. Many banks and services now have fraud  protection systems in place that alert them to strange purchase patterns. 

Be Social-Media Savvy:  

Make sure your social media profiles (such as Facebook, Twitter, and others) are set to private.  Check your security settings regularly. Use caution when posting information on the Internet. 

Secure Mobile Devices: 

Be aware that your mobile device might be infected with malware and hacked. Apps should  only be downloaded from reputable sources. 

Shield personal information:  

Users will be required to supply personal information to manage invoicing and shipping of  purchased goods using various online services. The following are some tips on how to disclose  personal information safely online: – Phishing communications will frequently instruct you to  respond immediately to keep your account open and upgrade your security, or else something  horrible will happen. You should not react to them. – Do not reply to emails that request  personal information. Genuine businesses will never ask for personal information via email. – Instead of following a link in an email or instant message, type the URL directly into the Web  browser when visiting a website.


Unfortunately, most of the essential changes and enhancements to the cybercrime security  framework will not occur until after a significant cyber-attack on a government system has  occurred. A vast number of attacks on a country’s essential firms and industries could also elicit  support. It will be complicated to construct an effective response if these attacks occur since  many new offenders will attack once they discover that the security system is inadequate. To  generate the support needed to build a security framework, the harm to a country’s government  or corporations would have to be serious, triggering a shutdown of the victim’s computer  systems. The level of destruction, damage, and loss of precious resources required to elevate  cybercrime to the forefront of security risks is rapidly approaching. In 1999, global investment  in computer virus eradication and protection, as well as lost productivity, totalled $12.1 billion  (Fonseca, 1, 18 Jan 2000). As figures like these continue to rise, more governments will become  aware of the problem and begin to take steps to combat it. Furthermore, once one or two  industrialized countries have established robust security arrangements, many more will follow  suit and construct their own. This would, once again, boost international cooperation.  Following a significant attack, funds will be readily accessible to build a strong security  structure. Until then, funding and support for the authorities presently combating the  cybercrime problem would be restricted. In most countries, the emerging concerns of  cybercrime and information warfare have not yet become a significant security concern. This  will become a huge security issue as the danger rises and more examples of cybercrime and  information warfare emerge. When governments and corporations take this issue seriously,  they will devote a significant number of resources to combating it. These funds should be used  to improve existing security mechanisms as well as to develop new ones. Furthermore, the  funds must be used globally to build multilateral agreements between governments on  cooperation and jurisdiction concerns. Not only must these issues be addressed, but efforts  must also be made to understand why criminals commit crimes and what steps can be taken to  prevent them. Overall, the threat of cybercrime is very high right now, and it will only get  worse as more people learn about computers and other modern devices. This hazard can be  mitigated now, when it is still tiny, or later when it is considerably larger. This is contingent  on the measures taken by governments and corporations around the world right now.


1) Research methodology used was Qualitative to a large extent. The study was conducted  based on statistical data from various reliable data experts of which individual data samples  differ with respect to time frame and demographic characteristics. 

2) There is not a lot of data available from varied sources to analyze thus increasing chances  of one-dimensional outlook. 

3) Due to paucity of time, only major relevant topics could be studied that are already  established.


Crime in India: 2011-Compendium (2012), National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home  Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi, India.  

Cyber Law & Information Technology (2011) by Talwant Singh, Additional District &  Sessions Judge, New Delhi, India. 

Introduction to Indian Cyber Law (2008) by Rohas Nagpal, Asian School of Cyber Laws,  Pune, India Cyber Crime (2003) by R.K. Suri and T.N. Chhabra, Pentagon Press, New Delhi,  India.  

International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Kandpal & Singh Vol. 2. No.4 ISSN:  2277-1921 156 Online version available at: Cyber Laws in the Information  Technology Age (2009) by Karnika Seth, Jain Book Depot, New Delhi, India. 

Cyber Security: Understanding Cyber Crimes, Computer Forensics and Legal Perspectives  (2012) by Nina Godbole and Sunil Belapure, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, India.  

Cyber Crime and the Victimization of Women: Laws, Rights and Regulations (2011) by  Debarati Haldaer (Centre for Cyber Victim Counseling, India) and K. Jaishankar  (Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, India), IGI Global, USA. cybercrime

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